TOPIC 1: The question of Somaliland

A disputed region in the Horn of Africa, Somaliland is a self-declared sovereign state, which broke away from Somalia in 1991 following a civil war. Despite functioning as a de facto independent entity with its own government, constitution, and security forces, Somaliland has not gained international recognition as an independent state. However, with Ethiopia´s recent efforts to gain access to the Gulf of Aden, Somaliland is closer to its first international recognition than ever before. Somalia has declared this agreement null and void. How can the African Union ensure peace and stability in one of the world´s poorest countries while preserving the right to self-determination?

TOPIC 2: Controlling the development of coups d’état

Since 1950, Africa has accounted for 105 successful seizure of power by a military or political group, and at least 45 of the 54 nations experienced at least a single coup attempt. Unlike a revolution, which is usually achieved by large numbers of people working for basic socioeconomic and political change, a coup is a change in power from the top that merely results in the abrupt replacement of leading government personnel. These actions destabilize countries, undermine democratic processes, and can lead to human rights abuses and economic turmoil. In recent years, successful coups d´état took place in Niger, Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali and Sudan.


Beginner: Algeria, Angola, Gabon, South Sudan, Tunisia, Uganda

Intermediate: Burkina Faso, Djibouti, Egypt, Chad, Kenya, Lybia, Mali, South Africa, Sudan

Advanced: DRC, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Nigeria, Somalia, Somaliland (Observer)